Neurologist

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New Points In Medicine(Neurology)

Tonsillar size in 2- to 14-year-old children with and without snoring

BACKGROUND: Few investigations have assessed tonsillar size in children of variable age, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) status and degree of adiposity. This study evaluated the size of tonsils in young and older, lean and obese children, without or with snoring. METHODS: Children attending the Emergency Department or Pulmonology Clinic were recruited and tonsillar size was scored 1-4. Snoring≥1 night/week was considered diagnostic of SDB and body mass index z-score≥1.645 was defined as obesity. Age was analyzed as dichotomous variable (≤7 years old vs.>7 years old). RESULTS: 362 children (2-14 years old) were recruited; 78 (21.5%) were obese and 108 (29.8%) had SDB. SDB-but not age or obesity-was significantly related to tonsillar size (P = 0.001). There was not enough evidence to support the presence of interactions between SDB and age or obesity regarding the size of tonsils (P = 0.157 and P = 0.978, respectively). Young subjects without SDB had larger tonsils than older subjects without SDB (1.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.8; P = 0.017), whereas age did not affect tonsillar size in children with SDB (P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Young and older children with SDB have similar tonsillar size. In contrast, older subjects without snoring have smaller tonsils than young subjects without snoring. Tonsillar enlargement in children with SDB probably occurs in early childhood without change in older age. Pediatr Pulmonol. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Inhaled tiotropium bromide and risk of stroke

AIMS: A recent communication from the United States Food and Drug Administration highlighted a possible increased risk of stroke associated with use of the relatively new inhaled anticholinergic drug, tiotropium bromide. Using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, we set out to assess the risk of stroke in individuals exposed to inhaled tiotropium bromide and two other inhaled treatments for airways disease. METHODS: We used the self-controlled case-series that reduces confounding and minimizes the potential for biases in the quantification of risk estimates. RESULTS: Of 1043 people with a diagnosis of incident stroke who had had at least one prescription for tiotropium bromide, 980 satisfied inclusion criteria. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio for all-cause stoke in individuals exposed to tiotropium bromide (n = 980), ipratropium bromide (n = 4181) and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol xinafoate (n = 1000) was 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 1.3], 0.8 (95% CI 0.7, 0.9) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.9, 1.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an increased risk of all-cause stroke for individuals exposed to commonly prescribed inhaled treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Bone and calcium metabolism and antiepileptic drugs:

There is increasing evidence suggesting that epilepsy and its treatment can affect bone mineralization and calcium metabolism. Many studies have shown a significant reduction in bone mineral density in patients treated with classic (phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproate, etc.) and with new (oxcarbazepine, gabapentin) antiepileptic drugs. In spite of data about the possible effects of the antiepileptic drugs on calcium metabolism, the mechanisms of this important side effect remain to be defined. The abnormalities of calcium metabolism were thought to result from the cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing properties of some antiepileptic drugs and the resultant reduction in vitamin D levels, but the effect of many medications (e.g., valproate) cannot be readily explained by vitamin D metabolism. In this article, the literature related to the effects of classic and new antiepileptic drugs on bone health and calcium metabolism is reviewed.

Does migraine-associated vertigo share a common pathophysiology with Meniere’s disease? Study with vestibular-evoked myogenic potential:

To clarify if migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) and Meniere’s disease (MD) share a common pathophysiology, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were measured in 11 patients with MAV, 11 with unilateral MD and eight healthy subjects. As acoustic stimuli, tone bursts (TB; 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) were presented. In healthy subjects, 500-Hz TB evoked the largest amplitude. To quantify this tendency, 500-1000 VEMP slope was calculated, and 500-1000 VEMP slope was the smallest on the affected side of MD patients. Among the 11 MD patients, five had significantly decreased 500-1000 VEMP asymmetry (shift of the tuning to 1000 Hz). Three of the 11 MAV patients also showed a significantly decreased 500-1000 VEMP slope. This finding suggests that MAV might share a common pathophysiology with MD. In addition to this finding, four of the other eight MAV patients showed prolonged p13 latencies. This suggests that MAV could consist of patients with different lesion sites

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December 6, 2009 - Posted by | 1

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